RAL is a color matching system used in Europe. In colloquial speech RAL refers to the RAL CLASSIC system, mainly used for varnish and powder coating. In 1927 the German Reichsausschuss fur Lieferbedingungen und Gutesicherung" (State Commission for Delivery Terms and Quality Assurance) invented a collection of 40 colors under the name of "RAL 840". Prior to that date manufacturers and customers had to exchange samples to describe a tint, whereas from then on they would rely on numbers.
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Light affects color because in seeing color it's actually light waves that our eyes perceive. Something has color because of the light it reflects. We all see color slightly differently depending on the perception of the light and color-sensitive receptor